Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Sample Sat Essay Topics

Sample Sat Essay TopicsWhen people begin to write a sample sat essay they will quickly realize how complicated and time consuming the process can be. The most basic sat essay topics are generally broken down into about five main categories: introductory essay, body, topic, test topic, and conclusion.If your essay topics are overly complicated then it is only likely that your paper will not be graded. The most popular essay topics are; the response to an open-ended question, a reflection on the position of God, the political and philosophical argument, the theory of nature, and the development of the humanities. Then, in the middle of the five categories the remainder is reserved for the more simple essay topics. You should endeavor to include at least one introductory section in your essay.This is because the introductory section must be the one section that will help the reader to understand your essay topics and to gain a basic understanding of the essays form. One of the best ways to start a new essay is by defining the title of the essay and its main point. This will help the reader to familiarize with the theme of the essay. Before you begin to write a sample sat essay make sure that you outline all of the ideas you will be writing. You can do this by writing a letter to your aunt and by writing a book review.You should also write your letter, explaining your 's intent. Most of the time when people write a letter to an aunt or someone that does not have any personal relationship with them; they often do not know what they are actually writing about. With the letter in hand it will allow you to ' explain your 's intent more clearly.The letter to your aunt is a good idea because you are not actually expressing an opinion. Most likely it will be a thank you letter for your aunt's help and can be used as a way to let your aunt know that you have learned something about writing. The book review is another good idea, because it is still considered an essay and i s important to understand that you are having someone else read your essay for you. You should write in the style of a description of the author's style and the book's purpose.The essay topics that you wrote are your introduction. Your first sentence should explain what your essay is about. For a first essay your main point is that you are working on a thesis. Your other essay topics are often your personal views and opinions, such as religion, politics, philosophy, science, and the problem of morality.When writing the essays, you will have to sit down and consider all of the essay topics and the other aspects of your work. Some of the other things you can do are to make sure that you write your essay's title properly. Another thing that you can do is to read some of the writing that you think will be helpful to you. If you can incorporate what you read into your own essay then your essay will be better than one that doesn't reflect the information that you found useful.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Obedience And Authority, By Stanley Milgram - 1156 Words

Psychologists take the effort to contrast the influences of people in regard to thinking, awareness, feelings, actions, attitudes, and behavior. Society tends to form responses from how one person’s actions ultimately causes various stereotypes and prejudices to be generated. Obedience to Authority by Stanley Milgram, discusses various subjects such as impression, stereotypes and prejudices, attribution, attitudes, social influence, attraction, obedience and authority, groups, and helping behavior. Milgram explains, â€Å"A person does not get to see the whole situation but only a small part of it, and is thus unable to act without some kind of over-all direction. He yields to authority but in doing so are alienated from his own actions.† (Milgram 11). In this passage, the author shows how in a workplace, people are given small and narrow jobs which is arguably taking away human qualities. Due to the fact that, workers cannot see the full overview of the job that is bei ng done and can only see the specific job that was designated, forces the workers to comply with authority, with the concept in mind that the workers are inferior. This works in many cases, if someone is told a small portion of a project is designated to them, instead of the full project; the worker will feel more inferior to the superior workers, which is an astute way to run an operation. Milgram also discusses, â€Å"Within the experimental setting, we find the three elements: position, status and action. PositionShow MoreRelatedEssay about Obedience to Authority by Stanley Milgram2387 Words   |  10 PagesStanley Milgram’s 1963 studies into obedience have provided important and shocking insights into the power of authority. The study set out to discover how obedient people really are. Debate and controversy have surrounded the study since the results were first published. Predictions made by psychologists before the experiment proved dramatically inaccurate. The experi ment led volunteers to believe they were administering increasingly painful and dangerous electric shocks to another volunteer forRead MoreAnalysis Of Stanley Milgram s Perils Of Obedience Essay1709 Words   |  7 PagesStill, many questions still remain prevalent as to how an individual reaches his or her decision on obedience in a distressing environment. Inspired by Nazi trials, Stanley Milgram, an American psychologist, questions the social norm in â€Å"Perils of Obedience† (1964), where he conducted a study to test how far the average American was willing to for under the pressures of an authority figure. Milgram s study showed that under the orders of an authoritative figure, 64% of average Americans had the capabilityRead MoreObedience Is, As Stanley Milgram Writes, â€Å"As Basic An Element1219 Words   |  5 PagesObedience is, as Stanley Milgram writes, â€Å"as basic an element in the structure of social life as one can point to† (Milgram 1). The act o f obedience holds positive connotations, but the sometimes negative effects of blind obedience are explored in Stanley Milgram’s â€Å"The Perils of Obedience† and Diana Baumrind’s â€Å"Review of Stanley Milgram’s Experiments on Obedience.† Though Milgram does analyze how the subjects of the experiment blame their actions on the experimenters, Baumrind argues the bad effectsRead MoreThe Causes Of Obedience From Research By Milgram ( 1974 ) And His Contemporaries1360 Words   |  6 Pagescauses of Obedience from research by Milgram (1974) and his Contemporaries. Stanley Milgram was a Psychologist at Yale. Obedience is an essential part in the format of humanity, and it’s destructiveness has been investigated throughout time. Stanley Milgram organized a research to test the destructiveness of obedience however, Milgram wanted to investigate why ordinary people are keen to obey an authority figure and commit evil deeds even when it goes against their beliefs. Milgram used socialRead MoreThe Perils of Obedience, by Stanley Milgram1499 Words   |  6 PagesIf a person of authority ordered you inflict a 15 to 400 volt electrical shock on another innocent human being, would you follow your direct orders? That is the question that Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University tested in the 1960’s. Most people would answer â€Å"no,† to imposing pain on innocent human beings but Milgram wanted to go further with his study. Writing and Reading across the Curriculum holds a shortened edition of Stanley Milgram’s â₠¬Å"The Perils of Obedience,† where he displaysRead MoreThe Milgram Experiment1142 Words   |  5 PagesThe Milgram Experiment Stanley Milgram, a famous social psychologist, and student of Solomon Asch, conducted a controversial experiment in 1961, investigating obedience to authority (1974). The experiment was held to see if a subject would do something an authority figure tells them, even if it conflicts with their personal beliefs and morals. He even once said, The social psychology of this century reveals a major lesson: often it is not so much the kind of person a man is as the kind of situationRead MoreThe Milgram Experiment Essay example1083 Words   |  5 PagesA researcher, Stanley Milgram, wondered how far individuals would go in following commands. In 1974 he set up a series of experiments. Describe the research methods used, together with the findings. In 1974 Stanley Milgram conducted the classic study of obedience to authority. The study looked into how far individuals would be willing to go, and were asked could they deliver increasingly devastating electric shocks to a fellow human being, as they were requested to do so by the professor inRead MoreThe Theory Of Psychology And Psychology Essay971 Words   |  4 Pagesdesign experiments to test specific hypotheses (the deductive approach), or to evaluate functional relationships (the inductive approach). One such experimental study is The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures. My paper will attempt to look at the ethics surrounding the Milgarm experiment, on the obedience to authority figures. And the reasons some psychologist misconstrued it has unethical. The experimenter (E) orders the teacher (T); the subject of the experiment, to give what theRead MoreStanley Milgram1172 Words   |  5 Pagesstructures of authority, hierarchy, and domination in every aspect of life, and to challenge them; unless a justification for them can be given, they are illegitimate, and should be dismantled, to increase the scope of human freedom.† There is a true feeling of what authority can do if placed in situations that require someone to follow instructions. What happens to someone when they follow the orders of another person in authority? An experiment conducted by psychologist Stanley Milgram reveal howRead MoreEssay on The Milgram Experiment1572 Words   |  7 PagesThe Milgram Experiment (Hart) Stanley Milgram’s experiment in the way people respond to obedience is one of the most important experiments ever administered. The goal of Milgram’s experiment was to find the desire of the participants to shock a learner in a controlled situation. When the volunteer would be ordered to shock the wrong answers of the victims, Milgram was truly judging and studying how people respond to authority. Milgram discovered something both troubling and awe inspiring about the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Formal and Ekphrasis Analysis Of The palette of King...

The palette of King Narmer: Formal Analysis The Palette of King Narmer is a very small, flat 64 centimeters tall, shield shape palette that is believed to be used for holy ceremonies. Sculpt from smooth leveled siltstone. The siltstone is a soft yet dim color of gray. Small in scale, the palette is created with numerous intriguingly beautifully detailed carvings, and illustrations that fully decorate both sides. These detailed carvings take up most of the negative space of both sides of the foreground, and middleground. While the negative space is adequately filled with the cared illustrations, the flat composition lacks true depth of field or deep space. The top of the palette is garnished with what†¦show more content†¦The revised back side ... is taken up by a finely carved...raised relief showing a king, undoubtedly Narmer, ready to strike down a foe whom he grabs by the hair. This pose would become typical in Ancient Egyptian art. He wears a short skirt, an animals tail and the crown that at least in later times was associated with Upper Egypt: the White Crown(The Ancient Egypt Site. The Ancient Egypt Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2014.). The palette of King Narmer is more than simply a work of art. It is a blend of artistic creativity, mixed with the function of recording the history of King Narmer. Revealing, Narmers rise to power as well as share the narrative of how Egypt was united. Anitra Harrison Jessica Doyle ART 561 11, February, 2014 The palette of King Narmer: Ekphrasis Analysis The palette of King Narmer is more than a lucid and exerted aesthetic construction. An engaging, intriguing composite of shape, color, and form,while delighting the aesthetic senses, this dynamic, blend of both beauty and symbolism, is able to intimately share a powerful narrative. A dynastic and dramatic tale of an uncharacteristically chaotic journey of one mans excursion into power, all the while uniting Egypt. A poignantly, contrary, contrast between her land, and her art, she has been habitually known for her Monumental, and epically extensive scope and size. Ancient Egypt exudes the expression of human creative skill and imagination.Her

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Oil Industry Essay Example For Students

Oil Industry Essay The oil industry can not be discussed without mentioning the name John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller changed the business of oil distribution. In the 19th century Rockefeller began his humble beginnings with a small investment, along with two other partners, in the oil refining business. Eventually Rockefeller upset at the direction of the company bought out his partners. He was now buying into refining and developing kerosene and other petroleum-based products. He later named this company The Standard Oil Company which by 1872 nearly owned all the oil refineries in Cleveland. In 1882, Rockefeller took all his holdings and merged them into the Standard Oil Trust. Through smart business practices and some deception, Rockefeller was able to control three-fourths of the petroleum industry by the 1900’s. After his retirement the company faced problems. (Rockefeller archive) The U.S. government believed that the Standard Oil Trust was a monopoly and ordered its breakup much like the process that is taking place today with Microsoft. With the government eventually breaking up the trust into thirty-eight companies, the world of petroleum products was about to change. Few companies could survive. They lacked focus and sustainability, basically they needed a strategic plan. When first broken up the companies needed to sever from their Standard ties while remaining a brand name that people recognized. With so much competition one company had to find an edge over the other. They needed to be the low-cost leader in the industry. Out of this struggle is where three of the biggest oil companies emerged. They are Exxon, Mobil and Chevron. With the breakup of the Standard Oil Trust also came a great opportunity for a foreign company to compete. Though Europe was battling some of the same problems that Standard Oil had, a few companies were able to break into the U.S market. Though it took many years to get in British Petroleum was able to start with a selective group of stations and build from there. BP, Chevron, and Exxon Mobile today make up three of the biggest in the oil industry. (Chevron Official Website)These three companies have all been created by many purchases and mergers over the last hundred years and must be described to have a better understanding. It was the demand for low oil prices, convenience, and superior quality that led to the companies tremendous growth in the last century. Out of the Standard Oil Trust breakup came two companies named Standard Oil of New Jersey and Standard Oil of New York otherwise known as Sonoco. Since they were not allowed to use the Standard name in territories given to the other breakup companies they had to change the name of their brand. They would market their gas under the name Esso and Mobilgas with the Standard label still displayed on their signs. With this increased competition Jersey Standard and Socony were forced to focus on quality and a low cost. To achieve this low cost they purchased interests in overseas oil mostly in the Middle East. Both these companies also were able to compete in overseas markets in Europe and Asia. With the take off of the car, the gasoline industry was booming. Both suffered from fierce competition. However Jersey and Socony had a greater ability to build up their resources. They used their interests in the Middle East to become a low cost producer as well as increase production with pipelin es and expansion. (ExxonMobil Official Website) Jersey Standard realized early on to stay in this industry it was going to have to be competitive in every market. They built the company up through mergers and large acquisitions. They bought over fifty percent interests in a competitor named Humble Oil, a Texas company. This increased their contacts with suppliers because Humble had a series of pipelines and was a huge transporter of oil. They also had many oil refineries in Texas. Socony was able to merge with an original Standard Oil Trust company named Vacuum. This helped their brand because it was able to not only merge with a competitor but lessen the number of companies using the Standard name. They marketed their Mobilgas in Vacuum properties and the brand symbol became the red wing horse. Both companies struggled in distribution. They both had plenty of interests in oil fields outside the U.S. but very few markets there. Jersey and Sucony decided on a fifty- fifty joint venture in about fifty countries. This marked the first time these companies worked together since the days of the Standard Oil Trust. By 1935 though expansion abroad was decreasing with the rise of WWII. The companies were forced to focus on supplying the Allied war effort. Jersey Standard focused on differentiating itself with their new technology of boosting fuel octane. With the ability to test such technologies in the military the Jersey Company was able to grow at a rapid rate. These technologies were introduced to the market at a tremendous success. This increased the revenues at Jersey, which also increased their reputation as being a quality brand. They were selling their gas at a lower cost then any other competitor with their new technologies. Jersey started advertising on TV for the first t ime. They developed a mascot that was to been seen at every Jersey/Esso station around the world. This mascot was a tiger. People were able to identify the Jersey/Esso name by the tiger for the first time. They achieved brand recognition. Socony achieved technological success too as well. They created new synthetic lubricants. These technologies help them increase their product line. They now had something other competitors didn’t have. Socony focused on their new products to achieve a cost advantage. They had achieved product differences from their competitor while discovering brand identity. Sucony started using their mascot on more advertisements. The red winged horse soon would identify them. After the war the companies focused on their foreign markets more. In addition, they started finding new ways to use oil and oil BI-products. Both companies developed chemicals with new technologies. Socony created a chemical company called Mobil Chemical Company in 1963. With this new company Sucony became the first to produce such products. This gave them low costs to establishing the brand since they were first. Jersey was not far behind with their chemical company in 1965, the Exxon Chemical Company. Both chemical companies dealt with such products as olefins, aromatics, polyethylene and process fluids. They both had manufacturing locations in several countries, which increased their buyer power, and they were able to be closer to some of their suppliers. In 1966 the Socony-Vaccum Company changed its name to Mobil Oil Co. and Mobil Oil become its wholly owned subsidiary. Jersey followed suit with the change of their name in 1972 to Exxon in the U.S. and foreign markets to Esso. W ith the change of their name both companies where able to tie all the mergers and acquisitions under one name. This in turn would help their brand identity. (ExxonMobil Official Website)In the 1970’s came the oil embargo of Iran. This rocked Exxon and Mobil with rocketed prices and disruption in the companies’ suppliers. Also the companies were not free to develop new products to maintain their competitive advantage. Mobil and Exxon were forced to look for other oil opportunities around the world. They found new oil developments in the Gulf of Mexico as well as Africa and Asia. At the end of the embargo and the decade oil was in surplus. Both companies competed with very low costs to the consumer. They both would continue to compete against each other with very low prices. Competitiveness was worldwide now and new costs were arising with expansion. Exxon and Mobil used their new profits to continue to market new products and extend into high growth areas. Today the oil industry has changed rapidly to only a few companies. To compete in the markets Exxon and Mobil decided to merge with each other and become the number one oil company in 1998. Both companies’ had massive supplies of oil interests around the world along with its hundreds of markets across the world. They became the number one low cost producers in the world today. ExxonMobil accomplished this by having the most suppliers, the ability to save cost by merging their similar departments together, faster delivery time, and the focus on providing the customer with quality, efficient, low price products. Overall ExxonMobil has shown to have powerful strategies and commands the lead in market share in the oil industry. With the new merger ExxonMobil revenue is over 35 billion dollars more then its closest competitor. ExxonMobil has a net income of almost 8 billion dollars in 1999. Though they have had a decrease from a year ago in income they have determined it has come from the rise in crude oil prices. This has little affect on the future, as more then likely crude oil will eventually fall. (ExxonMobil Official Website)The Chevron Co. also is a company broken off of the Standard Oil Company. Chevron started out as the Standard Oil Company of California or Socal. Socal was the first oil refining company to have a gas station. They made it so customers no longer had to service their car with buckets of gasoline from a dry goods store. Socal developed large tanks of gas with a garden hose to fill your tank. They were also the first to use a rain-blocking canopy, which was the first example of customer amenity. (Chevron Official Website) With increased business, profits took off. More stations where built across the U.S. Today there stands over 200,000 stations in the U.S. alone. In 1926 Socal merged with Pacific Oil Company to increase market growth. With the merger Socal increased its competitiveness with other companies. Socal used the new capital from the mer ger to establish Bahrain Petroleum Company where they struck oil in 1932. They also invested in oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia. By 1936 Socal was ready to invest in other parts of the world. But they needed help from a competitor. They ventured into a partnership with Texaco, which brought in new markets in Asia, Africa and Europe. Still looking to stay competitive in the oil industry they continued expansion in the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea after WWII. Through mergers Socal reached across the U.S. and established new markets competing against former Standard Oil Trust companies including Socony and Jersey. Socal marketed with the Standard name in its territories but used Chevron name in new acquisitions. (Chevron Official Website) Along the way Socal started to distinguish itself from the rest of the competition. They started adding gardens or fruit markets to attract more customers. They added vending machines to keep the customers occupied while filling up. It took over 8 minutes to fill a tank back then. They also provided customers content by washing their windows, checking their oil and maybe even cranking their engine. Eventually their competition caught on and started to duplicate the Socal ideasWith new technologies Socal increased its brand identity and lowered its costs in many markets. Socal later was concerned of not having many markets on northeast side of the U.S. coast. So in 1984 Socal bought Gulf Corp. and restructured. Out of the restructuring Socal decided to change all their markets to the Chevron name. Markets where Chevron and Gulf competed where sold to BP. Most of these markets are in the southeast. (Chevron Official Website) With the new name and increased market growth Chevron lowered their costs. They gained new suppliers through the acquisitions and have been able to have a competitive advantage with their focus in the northeast. Chevron over the years has moved into over twenty-five countries. Many of these countries are w here they have their suppliers. They have used these suppliers to supply them with low cost oil, which in turn has provided them the ability to offer their customers low prices. However, Chevron was late in getting into the international market place and does not have as many markets as leader ExxonMobil. Chevron has struggled over the years to compete with Exxon and Mobil and with their merger they faced trouble. Chevron knew in order to survive, they were going to have to find away to stay competitive. In 1999 they started talks with rival Texaco about plans for a merger. Today they have come to an agreement to merge and are on their way to a post merger company. This merger could be right in time. Chevron though not failing is clearly suffering in the last few years. It is unable to gain market share on ExxonMobil. They have been out sold the last two years buy over 60 billion each year. Their profits are still high but they have been unable to compete with the giant ExxonMobil. Until this merger is complete we have little fact that shows Chevron will ever be able to compete with ExxonMobil. They are by all means stuck in the middle. They lack the focus or the market share to compete in today’s oil industry. If they plan at making a run at ExxonMobil they will need this merger with Texaco to give it some life. British Petroleum or BP, based out of Britain, is one of the leading oil and petrochemical companies in the world. A guy named William Knox D’Arcy who had invested in oil interests in Iran at the turn of the century created BP. With little skilled workers and working in a country with out a strong government he was faced with many difficulties. It took D’Arcy over 8 years to eventually find oil in Iran. (BP Official Website) This was the beginning of oil exploration in the Middle East. By 1917 D’Arcy was retired and replaced by Charles Greenway as head of the company. Under Greenway BP avoided falling under the dominance of the Royal Dutch-Shell Co. But to stay competitive Greenway needed to find new capital and new markets to distribute its oil. Their first big customer was the Royal Navy. The government injected much needed capital into the company. The increase was huge, as the British government would enter WWI and later WWII. Between the two wars BP was able to grow with huge success. They marketed by new methods, which included roadside gas stations instead of cans of gas. They also entered into supplying gasoline for airplanes and massive ships. (BP Official Website) BP ended up exploring Canada, Africa and Europe looking for new oil and building new refineries. When Greenway retired in 1923 he released his main strategic goal. He wanted to establish BP as the worlds largest Oil Company but not only in gasoline and oil but also with presence in every phase of oil production. (BP Corp. Annual Report, 1999) From this, new products were developed and new chemicals were made. After the war the companies sales and profits had risen tremendously as well as employment and capital expenditure. They also had the largest oil refinery in the world and Iran was the leading oil producing Middle East country. Animal Cruelty leads to Human EssayToday when you go to the service station you can get your windows washed, pick up a drink or snack, or play the lottery. They have made it a one-stop shop. Exxon has expanded its TigerMarkets worldwide. They offer services no other company does. They have also marketed their stations at a better pace then their competitors. One other plus that Exxon has had in the past few years is negotiate with the Walt Disney Company to be the one and only gas station on Disney property. With the amount of people and cars that Disney parks see it is know wonder ExxonMobil has become the number one service station in the world. Technology has been the competitive advantage for ExxonMobil. They have come up with more technologies then any of their competitors. They offered their customers more choices at a regular basis then Chevron or BP. Exxon was the first into lubricants, and to test higher octane fuels. They also were the first to enter the market in petroch emicals. They have beaten their competitors at every turn. The reason that ExxonMobil is number one is because they never stopped competing. ExxonMobil has gone out to find the best suppliers. They have invented skyscraper-drilling platforms for the ocean looking for every competitive advantage. BP and Chevron took years before they were able to catch up in ocean drilling. Exxon was also tested and completed almost zero-emissions in lubricants and fuels. New technology is ExxonMobils competitive advantage. (ExxonMobil Official Website) ExxonMobil’s strategy is to be the leader in new technologies now and in the future. The U.S. has recently seen record growth in the last decade and has improved the oil industry tremendously. In the nineties oil prices reached lower prices then we have seen in a long time thanks to the drop in price in crude oil. People were able to travel more often because of the cheapness of the gas prices. Now it was the job of ExxonMobil, Chevron, and BP to get them to choose their gas. When you go to get gas you usually find gas stations on more then one corner. More then likely is the price is the same as the competitor. So to differentiate themselves from the other the companies they needed to try new things. Discussed earlier are the company’s strategic plans to draw customers. ExxonMobil established this plan the best. What also helped them was their market share. ExxonMobil market share is more then double their nearest competitor. They have more service stations per area then the rest. In 1999 ExxonMobil had net income of 8.1 billion dollars compared to Chevronâ⠂¬â„¢s 2 billion and BP’s 5 billion dollars. With Chevron’s acquisition of Texaco it clearly showing that it needed to find away to gain the market share that ExxonMobil has. The merger has not cleared yet but it should soon be and make Chevron move up from the fourth largest oil company in the world. Without this merger Chevron will never be able to compete with the giants ExxonMobil, BP, and Shell. (Chevron Official Website)ExxonMobil is clearly the giant when it comes to marketing their product. They have adopted a mascot to identify their company. The Tiger mascot first started appearing in the early 1900’s and it is known all around the world today. The ExxonMobil tiger ranks up there with Ronald McDonald, and Mickey Mouse. As the oil industry becomes more competitive with recent mergers the need for an effective marketing strategy increases. Exxon has increased there spending on marketing in the last few years to acknowledge the merger with Mobil. They mus t let the customers know that Exxon and Mobil are one now and they will deliver the same great quality. BP has a similar situation with the merge with Amoco. They have had trouble though marketing an American product. They do not have any catchy slogans or a mascot. In fact until very recently BP never had a definite symbol to represent its interests in the U.S. They have used the names NOCO, ARCO and Amoco until recently going to BPAmoco. Under one name they should be able to establish an identity. They must increase awareness to their customers by a full marketing campaign, which they have not done. Chevron is recognizable around the world for its bars underneath their name. They are the old Standard symbols. Chevron now has to work on a new marketing scheme to emphasis its merger with Texaco. They will be entering into new markets and must establish a name. They will have the advantage of the popularity of Texaco as a convenient service station. Texaco’s stations are some of the fastest stations to get out of. They have the newest state of the art technologies to pump the customer’s gas quicker and check them out faster. Chevron must hold on to Texaco’s loyal customers who hold Texaco spending cards. (Chevron Official Website)What all the oil companies have done has released smart cards to encourage customer loyalty. This card is kind of like a lot of the grocery stores new bonus cards. Each service station will offer you a card that can be used to pay your gas bill but also you may be allowed to purchase food and merchandise in the quickmart. They also offer the chance to receive rewards for using their cards. ExxonMobil has developed the best card and seems to be the most popular today. One reason for this is wherever you go around the country you will find an ExxonMobil. This helps the customer because they believe their card will be valid everywhere and it will. ExxonMobil also has come up with many promotions to get customers into their stations. They have given away basketballs and t-shirts along with other stuff. While most gas stations also do this they do not have the marketing exposure that ExxonMobil has. ExxonMobil clearly has the marketing advantage over its rivals. Chevron has a chance to gain share when the final merge with Texaco takes place. (Chevron annual report, 1999) As far as BP goes with only being in the U.S. market for 12 years they have a long way to go. If they ever want to compete in the U.S. and overtake ExxonMobil they must market better. In this highly competitive industry sustainability is a difficult task. Chevron saw that it was losing the battle so they orchestrated a merge. If they did not initiate this in all likely hood they would be bought out or dismantled. ExxonMobil has proved to be the low cost provider with its new technologies and new suppliers from around the world. ExxonMobil has seen its revenues go up some 25% in the last year. While Chevron has seen 52% and BP has seen 77%. It might seem that Exxon is falling behind but really the other companies are making a strong push to be competitive for the first time. BP has gone through major restructuring and has made productivity improvements. While Chevron has seen there products help boost them up and some decreased operating expenses. Every company was helped by the increasing price of crude oil. ExxonMobil has seen the rise in competition in the last years and has developed a strategy to continue success. They include:1.)Maximize profitability of existing oil and gas productions2.)Identify and pursue all attractive exploration opportunities3.)Invest in projects that deliver superior returns4.)Capitalize on growing natural gas markets.(ExxonMobil annual report, 1999)Chevron has been focusing on their recent merger with Texaco, which has still not been approved. Once the companies do merge they will establish a strategic plan. They continue to work through this business deal ready to challenge its competitors. BP has recently used a strong trading environment to gain a market advantage. They also have concentrated on their natural gas and chemical industries. To gain market share in the U.S though they are going to have to start investing more into the recently purchased Amoco. They have still not realized the full potential of the U.S market. BP clearly needs direction to over take ExxonMobil. There is little growth in the oil industry today. The oil industry has come down to four major companies competing against each other. Foreign markets determine today’s growths in the industry. Not only in finding new customers but also finding new suppliers. With oil production in the Middle East controlled by OPEC the oil industry is suffering from high oil prices, which is driving the economy down. The companies need to start to find a greater production out of none OPEC countries. (The Street.com)ExxonMobil has started using it strategic plan to go out and invest, secure, and explore new oil deposits. They have more interest today towards the natural gas solutions. They are going to start competing highly against BP. If BP is as easy as a push over in the gasoline industry ExxonMobil will have little trouble to become number one in natural gas. Chevron has made little effort to get into the natural gas market but they do have a competitive advantage in marine technology. T hey may in the future concentrate on that to gain advantages. These companies will all sustain in the markets of the future. There will always be competition in the oil industry. ExxonMobil has shown that they will continue to be number one through their strategic plan of technology. They plan to beat the other companies to next newest thing. With the merger of Chevron and Texaco, Chevron has pushed itself to the elite. Now they must put together a strategic plan to overtake the giant ExxonMobil. BP is slowly organizing itself for a major push to be number one. The future of the oil industry is clearly wide open. With all the new mergers all one company has to do is develop their strategic plan and use competitive advantages over their competitors. ExxonMobil has shown to have down that are showing the results with the largest profits ever recorded this year with 17.72 billion. (ExxonMobil annual report, 1999)Exxon has decided to look ahead into long-term benefits associated with improved capital efficiency. They will be the best business with the best opportunities around the globe. They believe they have the right explorations under way and the best portfolio in the industry. Exxon also has the most profitable petrochemical business in the world now with the merger. Chevron will now be looking for a new identity. They will have to make wise decisions in where they want to go. Do they want to compete head on with the giant ExxonMobil? Or are they content on being stuck in the middle. They have to develop a new strategic plan and differentiate themselves from other oil companies. BP has been able to gain solid ground on ExxonMobil in the last few years due to international markets. To stay competitive they must continue exploration around the world for new suppliers. However, their main concern should be identifying their U.S. strategy. They also better be on the look out for the new merger of Chevron-Texaco. If they are not careful they could be left on the side fighting for market share. Today the world is entering a period of economic adjustment and the oil industry is contributing to that. Oil prices are higher today then they have been in a long time. It has been said in the past that oil prices are tied to the economy. Does that mean that the three companies ExxonMobil, BP, and Chevron are in trouble? No they will all continue to survive. This adjustment occurs all the time and the oil industry will go on its business. In fact this will help the oil industry grow with their search around the world for new markets and new supplies. ExxonMobil has put itself in the best place to grow and prosper in the years to come. You must remember that this merger is only two years old and yet they are growing at an outstanding rate. The world has never seen the numbers that they have achieved. They have developed some of the most useful technologies and are clearly showing no sign of backing down. Today companies copy ExxonMobil’s strategic plan the time. ExxonMobil has the best market share, the biggest revenue and by far the most profits. They clearly are the standard of the oil industry. BP on the other hand has got to start developing a new strategic plan to stay competitive. They have not shown the know how to beat ExxonMobil. If they do not change they will become stuck in the middle. Chevron is opening up a whole New World right now. Nobody knows where Chevron could go. They are entering a phase that ExxonMobil was in a few years ago. They too could end up pulling off the same success as ExxonMobil. But if they come out of this new merger with out a strategy to become the best then they will surely be left at the bottom as they are now. In conclusion, of the three, ExxonMobil is the dominant company but must look out for, the growing company, Chevron. Bibliography:BIBLIOGRAPHYBP’s Corp., Official Home Page: www.bp.com. BP’s Corp. 1999 Annual Report, BP Corporation, 1999. Chevron’s Corp., Official Home Page: www.chevron.com. Chevron’s Corp. 1999 Annual Report, Chevron Corporation, 1999. ExxonMobil’s Corp., Official Home Page: www.exxon.mobil.com. ExxonMobil’s Corp. 1999 Annual Report, ExxonMobil Corporation, 1999. Haddadin, Haitham. â€Å" Stock Crash Reminds Pros of 1973-74 bear market† U.S. Market News, March 1, 2001. Park, Christopher. â€Å" S. Korea, Russia agree to strengthen oil, gas cooperation† U.S. Market News, Feb. 27,2001. Yahoo: www.rockefeller.edu/archive.ctr/jdrsrbro.html(3-1-01)Yahoo: www.leegallery.com/perjune.html (3-1-01)

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Educational Planning Essay Example

Educational Planning Essay Educational Planning Planning can be defined as â€Å"a process of taking decisions for future actions in order to achieve pre-determined objectives by optimum utilization of available resources in a limited time frame†. Thus a pre-condition for planning is the existence of certain objectives which need to be achieved and constraints in this respect are time and resources. Here resources include all the three types of resources namely physical(or material), financial and human resources. It is said that we plan because we have limited resources and we have to achieve our objectives within the constraint of these limited resources. The term â€Å"planning† is very frequently used in daily life and every person without exception does some planning at individual level when one has to accomplish some task. Households plan for meeting the requirements of the family within the income available and thus plan for monthly expenditure. When planning is undertaken at the individual or household level decision for future actions are taken by individuals. However, if planning is to be undertaken for a system e. g. lanning for education, the important issues to be addressed are : who (and at what level) will decide about the goals, objectives, allocation of resources and time frame which are important and essential components of planning. At the systems level these decisions are taken at various hierarchical units. This concept of availability of various hierarchical units for planning is called the multi-level planning framework. It means the existence of hierarchy of levels of planning with clearly defined territorial jurisdiction. Under this framework planning is possible at national, state (provincial),district, sub-district and village level. We will write a custom essay sample on Educational Planning specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Educational Planning specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Educational Planning specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer However in India planning particularly in the field of education is carried out at the national, state and in a limited way at the district level only. In the field of education in any country there can be a possibility of developing plans at various levels. Specifically in the big countries and even in medium sized countries the planning is undertaken at more than one level, that is, at various hierarchical administrative units. In many countries the hierarchical units available for planning are national, provincial, district, sub-district and village levels. It may therefore be noted that planning for education can possibly be undertaken at these levels. Undertaking the planning at lower levels along with the higher units is refereed to as decentralized planning. However, if we consider the methodology of planning for education it may be made clear that the methodology or the steps involved in planning remain the same whether plans are formulated at higher level or at the lower level. In order plan for education there are certain steps that are involved. These are as follows. ? Diagnosis of the Educational Situation · ? Target Setting · Intervention Strategies and Activities · ? Costing and Budget Preparation · ? Implementation and Monitoring Mechanism · ? Negotiations, Appraisal and Approval Diagnosis of Educational Situation The first step in developing a plan for education is to diagnose the educational situation. A diagnosis of the education system is an important and initial step towards developing plan. Diagnosis forms an important step in understanding the system itself. Diagnosis in planning is a process of making a realistic assessment regarding what and how much has already been achieved till now. Diagnosis in the context of educational planning is an effort to make a fair assessment of achievements and constraints. It is very likely that what is achieved may be less than what was expected as per the targets set in the earlier plan. There may be various reasons for this under achievement. The diagnosis exercise attempts to identify these constraints so that they are removed while implementing the next plan. It may also be found that sometimes the under achievement of the targets may be due to various constraints imposed on the educational system from within or outside. It may often be difficult to analyze what happens to education ystem without reference to what happens at the household level or at the immediate environment in which the schools are functioning. For example, for knowing the reasons of non-enrolment of children one may have to analyze not only school related factors but also education related factors that operate in the social and economic realm of the society. The diagnosis of educational situation can be done at various levels e. g. at the national, provincial, district, sub-district, village and school level. However, the nature and content of analysis and the indicators used for analyzing the situation may vary between levels. At the higher levels like national and provincial level the analysis of present situation in education may mostly be quantitative and focusing more on input variables whereas at the lower levels e. g. at the village or school levels focus may be more on the qualitative dimension and process variables. The level of disaggregation of information required for analysis also varies between various levels. Foe example, an analysis of educational situation at national level may focus more on inter-state disparities in educational progress; a diagnosis at the state level may focus on inter-district differences. At the lowest level i. e. village level the focus may be on the disparities between households and families. The diagnosis can be purely quantitative or can also be qualitative. However, it involves a systematic and empirical analysis of the educational situation. For this there is a need of developing a reliable data base for initiating the planning exercise. The quantitative analysis is more important while diagnosing the educational situation at the national or provincial level. Even at the local level quantitative information provides more objectivity to analyze the educational situation. To understand the educational situation one may have to analyze education related factors which may have direct bearing on education. Hence an analysis of immediate external environment may be quite helpful in order to understand the educational process that is taking shape in schools and their immediate surroundings. Focus on such education related dimensions is more important to identify constraints. In planning for education the diagnosis exercise may focus on various factors. These may be related to factors pertaining to inputs to the education system; factors pertaining to the functioning of the system and factors pertaining to the efficiency and outcomes of the educational process. While considering the inputs important elements to be considered include provisions of facilities and infra-structure, enrollment ,teachers etc. As far as functioning of the system is concerned the elements to be taken into account include administration of education at the system level, managing the educational process at the institutional and classroom level. For analyzing the quality and outcomes of the education system the efficiency of education and the pass percentage and graduation rate etc. are important. Target Setting Targets are translation of objectives in clearly defined quantitative terms. What the plan intends to achieve during the plan period when specified in quantitative terms is known as target. Targets are statements which state clearly and unambiguously what is to be achieved and are in measurable terms and have definite time frame. In order to develop education plan the targets may be set for access, enrolment, retention and achievement level of children. However it is desirable to undertake the target setting exercise in a disaggregated manner. Secondly in a medium and long term plan the targets should be set in a phased manner which means that targets should not only be set for the total plan period but should also be set for all intervening years. This may not only help to see the progress of implementation of the plan on year to year basis but may also facilitate in reviewing the implementation strategies and perhaps revising the targets for the coming years. The gender and social disparities in the field of education are common features in developing countries. These disparities may be in enrolment, retention or even in achievement also. One of the important objectives in the education plan will be to reduce these disparities. It is therefore important to set the targets on enrolment and retention separately for boys and girls as well as for different ethnic groups that are educationally backward. Over a period of time the gap between boys and girls and between various ethnic groups and others may be reduced. The target of reducing this gap may depend upon the gaps between these categories in the base year of the plan. Several demographic and enrolment indicators can be used in setting enrolment targets. These are growth rate of population; growth rate of school age population or share of school age population to total population; share of girls in total child population; share of under age and over age children in total enrolment at a given level of education; Net Enrolment Ratio; growth rate of enrolment in the preceding year; and Net Intake Rate (NIR). It is important to note that plan targets for all major interventions need to beset at the lower level administrative unit. For example, in the national plan state (i. e. province) wise targets may be set or while planning at the state level district wise targets need to be set. Further the plan targets should be expressed both in terms of absolute figures as well as in terms of performance indicators, where ever applicable. Intervention Strategies and Activities After setting the targets the next step in planning is to evolve strategies to achieve the targets and therefore evolving intervention strategies to achieve the targets is another important aspect of plan formulation. The effort may be to highlight the interventions that will help to overcome the problems and constraints identified in the plan so as to ensure that the targets set are achieved. However, it is to be noted that the strategies evolved will have to address the identified problems and issues. While evolving the strategies important points to keep in view are: (i) in a decentralized planning any single strategy may not be uniformly operational or applicable indifferent areas and that is why probably for addressing a single problem one may have to envisage a set of strategies for a given context. ii) Many a times a single strategy may not be enough to address an issue or a problem and there will be a need to work out multiple strategies for addressing a single problem. (iii) All the problems and issues identified during the planning exercise must be tackled and intervention strategies should be worked out accordingly and there should thus be a linkage between the problems/issues identifie d and the intervention strategies developed for addressing them. Translating the strategies into programs and activities is the next step in the plan formulation. It is to be kept in view that a specific intervention strategy may require a number of programs to make it operational and effective. However a program may be an aggregation of various activities. It is therefore necessary to translate each and every strategy into activities and tasks. For example for improving access the strategy can be ‘opening of new schools’. However one of the activities under the strategy of opening new school may be ‘construction of school building’. But the activity of construction of school building has many tasks that are to be undertaken. These tasks may be (i) identification of school-less habitations; (ii)identification of habitations qualifying for opening schools; (iii) listing and prioritization of habitations; (iv) deciding about the number of schools to be opened;(v) identification of habitations where schools are to be opened; (vi) deciding the location/site of the school; (vii) acquiring site/transfer of land; (viii) identification of agency for construction and supervision; (ix) actual construction work; (x) monitoring and supervision of construction work and (xi) finishing and furnishing of school building. Next step in plan formulation is the sequencing and phasing of these activities and the tasks. It may be noted that some activities / tasks can be undertaken only in a sequential manner whereas some activities/tasks can be started simultaneously. For example, construction of school building and recruitment of teachers are the activities which can be undertaken simultaneously while actual construction of school building can not be done before deciding the site of the school, acquiring site, transfer of land and identification of agency for construction and supervision. Costing and Budget Preparation An important step in the plan formulation exercise is the costing and estimation of financial requirements to implement the plan. Translating the physical inputs into financial requirements is essential for funding purpose. All the activities and tasks identified, which have financial implication, are to be cost properly and budgeted adequately. Various steps that are involved in estimation of financial requirements are: (i) listing of all the activities to be undertaken (ii) classifying all these activities into two categories i. . activities having cost implications and activities which do not have cost implications; (iii) classifying the activities which have cost implications into recurring and non-recurring heads; (iv) working our the is another important aspect of plan formulation. The effort may be to highlight the interventions that will help to overcome the problems and constraints identified in the plan so as to ensure that the targets set are achieved. However, it is to be noted that the strategies evolved will have to address the identified problems and issues. While evolving the strategies important points to keep in view are: (i) in a decentralized planning any single strategy may not be uniformly operational or applicable indifferent areas and that is why probably for addressing a single problem one may have to envisage a set of strategies for a given context. (ii) Many a times a single strategy may not be enough to address an issue or a problem and there will be a need to work out multiple strategies for addressing a single problem. iii) All the problems and issues identified during the planning exercise must be tackled and intervention strategies should be worked out accordingly and there should thus be a linkage between the problems/issues identified and the intervention strategies developed for addressing them. Translating the strategies into programs and activities is the next step in the plan formulation. It is to be kept in view that a specific intervention strategy may require a number of programs to make it operational and effec tive. However a program may be an aggregation of various activities. It is therefore necessary to translate each and every strategy into activities and tasks. For example for improving access the strategy can be ‘opening of new schools’. However one of the activities under the strategy of opening new school may be ‘construction of school building’. But the activity of construction of school building has many tasks that are to be undertaken. These tasks may be (i) identification of school-less habitations; (ii)identification of habitations qualifying for opening schools; (iii) listing and prioritization of habitations; (iv) deciding about the number of schools to be opened;(v) identification of habitations where schools are to be opened; (vi) deciding the location/site of the school; (vii) acquiring site/transfer of land; (viii) identification of agency for construction and supervision; (ix) actual construction work; (x) monitoring and supervision of construction work and (xi) finishing and furnishing of school building. Next step in plan formulation is the sequencing and phasing of these activities and the tasks. It may be noted that some activities / tasks can be undertaken only in a sequential manner whereas some activities/tasks can be started simultaneously. For example, construction of school building and recruitment of teachers are the activities which can be undertaken simultaneously while actual construction of school building can not be done before deciding the site of the school, acquiring site, transfer of land and identification of agency for construction and supervision. Implementation Schedule and Monitoring Mechanism One of the important stages in planning exercise is detailing out the implementation plan. When planning at the lower levels, e. g. district level planning, implementation is part and parcel of planning activities. A plan document is incomplete if it does not contain detailed plan for implementation of the programs and projects that the plan contains. It thereby means that planning for implementation should be inbuilt in the plan document. A failure in the achievement of plan targets in the education sector is generally attributed to the lack of detailed planning for implementation. Planning for implementation facilitates the process of implementation of programs and projects by providing a sound mechanism of monitoring in the form of implementation schedule and it also increases the efficiency of the system by minimizing the costs of implementation of a given program or project. Planning for implementation makes it possible to critically analyze the activities of a given educational program and to develop an implementation schedule which can be used for monitoring the progress of implementation. There are certain steps that are necessary in planning for implementation of educational programs or projects. These are; listing of activities that make up the program; thinking through each of these activities; establishing inter-relationships between these activities; establishing a network; setting activity duration; determining material, equipment and human resource needs; deciding about time duration for the program implementation of each activity; identifying identical activities of the program which can not be overlooked without affecting the duration of the average cost of recurring activities and unit cost for non-recurring activities (v)estimation of costs separately under the recurring and non-recurring heads. While estimating the financial requirements for the Education Plan the recurring costs estimation may be on items such as salaries, training, maintenance of building, equipment, furniture, infrastructure, travel costs; stationary and consumables, contingencies, rents etc. Similarly the non-recurring cost estimation may be on items such as: construction of school building, additional classrooms, toilets, compound wall, equipments, furniture; infrastructure; vehicle etc. The aggregation of costs of all the activities and tasks under various strategies will give the total financial requirements of the plan. Allocation of resources to education is based on the budgets. Budgets are prepared annually to facilitate the resource allocation process. This implies that these activities are to be classified according to the year of beginning and completion of the activities. This may help in preparing the annual budgets. The budget should correspond to the activities indicated to be completed in that particular year. While estimating the cost requirements for the plan it is of utmost importance to keep in view the financial parameters fixed by the higher level decision making bodies with regard to Education Plans to be formulated at the lower levels. The costing of the plan must adhere to the ceilings on various items and other financial parameters prescribed by the approving body which may be the national (i. e. central) government and/or the provincial government. Negotiations, Appraisal and Approval The plans developed are draft plans till they are discussed and finally approved by the approving authorities. Since resources are to be allocated for implementation of plan, the negotiation process is very important. Many proposals in the plan may require financial allocation from the higher authorities. Hence the plan may become final only when they are discussed and finally approved by the authorities by approving budget and allocating funds as per requirements. The approving authorities look into the desirability of proposals and the feasibility of implementation of the plan. This is the process of negotiation between those who formulate the plan and those who have to finally approve the plan and budget. It is generally found that some cut in the proposed resource requirement is done by the authorities and in such case the plan need to be revised in the light of discussion. Based on the resources assured by the approving authorities, plan proposals are to be prioritized. After such re-prioritization so as to establish a link between what is proposed and the extent of resources available, the plan is finalized. In order to approve the plan the authorities, who have to approve the plan and budget, do generally like to do comprehensive review of the various aspects and components of program proposals. It is therefore seen whether the plan is technically sound, financially viable and justified and administratively feasible. This is done with the help of a team of experts who discuss the plan proposals at length with the planning team. This process is known as the appraisal of plan. Thus an important aspect of plan negotiation is appraisal through which the opinion of the experts is sought about the soundness and feasibility of plan proposals before it is finally approved for implementation. Negotiation is a process by which one can bargain for more resources. If the proposals made in the plan document are justified and the planning team is able to convince the authorities it is very likely that they may get more resources. However, if the plan proposals are weak and unconvincing the chances are that they may get less amount of resources. The soundness of the proposals which constitute a plan is an important consideration influencing the amount of resources allocated

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Movie Critique essays

Movie Critique essays Intense car chases, extraordinary fight scenes, a great story line. These are all components of a good movie. Warner Brothers executes these with pizzazz in the movie The Matrix: Reloaded by director Josh Oreck. The matrix is a science fiction movie and thus appeals to a very critical audience. It displays all the necessary components of camera arts and computer imaging. We have come along way from Thomas Edisons first film, Fred Otts Sneeze which used roles of celluloid film. The story of The Matrix is society in the future. We have developed A.I. (artificial intelligence) and it has gone beyond our control and in an attempt to terminate the problem we have fallen into a war. The real world is in ruin as a result of our futile attempts to stop the machines we have scorched the sky and the machines have destroyed our cities. The machines have managed to harvest and grow humans for our BTUs (body heat) they harness that to create electricity and thus have fueled their world. We live in incubators where the machines have created a virtual world for us, which they control via probes and fluid lines that they feed us through metal implants. The main metal implant is at the back of our heads where they tap into our consciousness, thus creating an alternate world. There is one human city left however, made by those minds that have been set free from the matrix and are of course unplugged, the city is Zion. The prophecy believed by most of the people is that the One lives in the matrix and can end the war. He lives in the matrix but can bend the rules of the construct of the matrix because it is a computer program it has rules. He can bend those rules at will and defeat the agents which are programs that work for the matrix keeping us slaves to the machines. In the first movie Morpheus (Lawrence Fishburne) sets the One free. ...

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Pay for Performance Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Pay for Performance - Research Paper Example Therefore, effectiveness of pay for performance can be measured with surveys aims at findings about employee satisfaction and motivation levels (Gomez-Mejia, 2010). Furthermore, their on job performances and achievement of their goals may also help in knowing that whether or not certain pay for performance program is effective. Lastly, financial numbers and ratios, such as revenues, sales, expenses, profitability, operating income, profit margins, return on investment and others remain as major tool to measure their effectiveness. If any pay for performance plan is motivating employees but not adding to the financial success of the company then it is better for the company to revisit the plan and the processes (Schuler & Jackson, 2007). There are many advantages of pay for performance programs for the employees and that is why many companies opt for it. First, by paying employees for their efforts and performances, employers motivate them to improve their performances in order to ear n more (Gerhart & Rynes, 2003). Despite the fact that money is not the only motivator, it is biggest motivator, which means that employees are highly likely to work harder and bring more profits to the company to earn more.